• ILSC 2007 Paper #1506 (Using Broadband Detectors for Measuring the Output of Broadband Sources such as White Light LEDs)

    Using Broadband Detectors for Measuring the Output of Broadband Sources such as White Light LEDs
    Authors:
    Woody Strzelecki, TUV Rheineland of North America; Newtown CT USA
    Nikolay Stoev, Valkom Laser Consulting; Toronto ON Canada
    Presented at ILSC 2007

    Broadband sources can be measured in different ways. Monochromators are used for measurements within narrow spectral intervals (typically a few nm). Bandpass filters are used for measurements within larger spectral windows, usually tens of nm. Special detectors, calibrated against the appropriate action spectrum may be used to directly measure the effective radiation values, i.e. the source emission weighted using the hazard function...

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  • ILSC 2007 Paper #1507 (Method to Measure Apparent Source Location and Angular Subtense of Extended Sources with Additional Optics)

    Method to Measure Apparent Source Location and Angular Subtense of Extended Sources with Additional Optics
    Authors:
    Clark Venzke, Banner Engineering Corp; Minneapolis MN USA
    Presented at ILSC 2007

    In using the international laser safety standard, IEC 60825-1, to classify a laser or light emitting diode (LED) source, the angular subtense (α) may need to be determined to calculate the accessible emission limits (AELs). The angular subtense is used to calculate the extended source correction factor (C6) and to determine the measurement geometry over much of the retinal hazard wavelength range. The easiest way to find a value for the angular subtense of the apparent source is to assume a conserva...

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  • ILSC 2007 Paper #1508 (Assessment of AEL for Scanning Lasers: Relaxed Eye)

    Assessment of AEL for Scanning Lasers: Relaxed Eye
    Authors:
    Bryan Tozer, Lasermet LTD; Dorset Great Britain
    Presented at ILSC 2007

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a new, more acceptable way of assessing the thermal retinal hazard arising from exposure to a scanning laser beam when the exposed eye is relaxed and therefore sees an image moving across the retina. For the situation where the eye fixes upon the scanning mirror, the image is stationary on the retina and therefore can be treated in the normal way prescribed in IEC 60825-1 for stationary beams; it is not addressed in this paper. This paper uses the existing model as used in assessing AELs and MPEs in 60825-1, including t...

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  • ILSC 2007 Paper #201 (In Vivo and In Vitro Evaluation of Corneal Damage Induced by 1.57 µm Laser Radiation)

    In Vivo and In Vitro Evaluation of Corneal Damage Induced by 1.57 µm Laser Radiation
    Authors:
    Daniel Courant, Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique; France
    Catherine CHAPEL, Commissariat Energie Atomique; Fontenay aux roses France
    Christophe POTHIER, Delegation Generale Armement; Arcueil France
    Jean-Claude PEROT, Delegation Generale Armement; Arcueil France
    Presented at ILSC 2007

    A variety of infrared laser sources between 1500-1700 nm is called as "eye-safe". However, in providing protection for the deeper layers of the eye, the cornea is susceptible to thermal damage. The purpose of this study was first, to determine the threshold damage exposure on rab...

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  • ILSC 2007 Paper #202 (Laser-induced Retinal Injury Threshold Studies with Wavefront Correction)

    Laser-induced Retinal Injury Threshold Studies with Wavefront Correction
    Authors:
    Brian Lund, Northrop Grumman; Brooks City-Base TX USA
    David J. Lund, USAMRD-WRAIR; Brooks City-Base TX USA
    Peter R. Edsall, Northrop Grumman; San Antonio TX USA
    Presented at ILSC 2007

    Computer models of laser retinal exposure predict that the retinal injury threshold will decrease with decreasing retinal irradiance area until the beam diameter at the retina is less than 10 micrometers. However, a number of investigations over a range of wavelengths and exposure durations show that the incident energy required to produce a retinal injury in the eye of an anesthetized non-human primate (NH...

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  • ILSC 2007 Paper #203 (Repetitive Pulses and Laser-induced Retinal Injury Thresholds)

    Repetitive Pulses and Laser-induced Retinal Injury Thresholds
    Authors:
    David Lund, USAMRD-WRAIR; Brooks AFB TX USA
    Presented at ILSC 2007

    Experimental studies with repetitively pulsed lasers show that the ED50, expressed as energy per pulse, varies as the inverse fourth power of the number of pulses in the exposure, relatively independently of the wavelength, pulse duration, or pulse repetition frequency of the laser. Models based on a thermal damage mechanism cannot readily explain this result. Menendez et. al. proposed a probability-summation model for predicting the threshold for a train of pulses based on the probit statistics for a single pulse and assuming that each pulse is an independe...

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  • ILSC 2007 Paper #204 (A Proposal How to Deal with Low Power Laser in the New European Directive on Artificial Optical Radiation)

    A Proposal How to Deal with Low Power Laser in the New European Directive on Artificial Optical Radiation
    Authors:
    Hans-Dieter Reidenbach, Cologne University of Applied Sciences; Koeln Germany
    Joachim Hofmann, Research Laboratory Medical Technology; Koeln Germany
    Klaus Dollinger, Cologne University of Applied Sciences; Koeln Germany
    Presented at ILSC 2007

    Laser safety philosophy for low power laser is based on aversion responses including the blink reflex since many years and former the description of laser class 2 and 2M in the international laser product standard IEC 60825-1 implied this approach for the case of short intrabeam viewing. By contrast we have found in a...

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  • ILSC 2007 Paper #302 (Laser Security through Heat Conduction)

    Laser Security through Heat Conduction
    Authors:
    Erwin Heberer, Gela GmbH; Heusenstamm Germany
    Joachim Franek, ; Germany
    Presented at ILSC 2007

    deals not only with the special features of ultra short pulsed lasers but also disputes the physical basics of the security function of laser guard walls in use with high power lasers. By means of an example it is demonstrated that heat radiation is the dominating cooling effect of a laser guard wall. To confirm this, tests with a fiber laser with 4kW and thick guard walls were being made. Through a special test array the influence of heat radiation can be eliminated and the protection effect of heat conduction can be examined. The materi...

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  • ILSC 2007 Paper #303 (Qualification of Personal Protective Equipment for the Use of Hand-held Laser Processing Devices)

    Qualification of Personal Protective Equipment for the Use of Hand-held Laser Processing Devices
    Authors:
    Thomas Puester, Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V.; Hannover Germany
    Oliver Meier, Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V.; Hannover Germany
    Andreas Ostendorf, Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V.; Hannover Germany
    Dirk Wenzel, Saechsisches Textilforschungsinstitut e.V.; Chemnitz Germany
    Hendrik Beier, Saechsisches Textilforschungsinstitut e.V.; Chemnitz Germany
    Presented at ILSC 2007

    Hand-held laser processing devices are constantly finding new applications. Starting with precision welding, now systems are available for cutting, welding, cladding, hardening and clea...

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  • ILSC 2007 Paper #401 (Local Susceptibility of the Retina, Formation and Duration of After-images in the Case of Class 1 Laser Products and Disability Glare Arising from HB-LEDs)

    Local Susceptibility of the Retina, Formation and Duration of After-images in the Case of Class 1 Laser Products and Disability Glare Arising from HB-LEDs
    Authors:
    Hans-Dieter Reidenbach, University of Applied Sciences Cologne; Koeln Germany
    Presented at ILSC 2007

    According to the new European Directive on Artificial Optical Radiation (2006/25/EC) the employer has to determine the exposure and the assessment of risks, i.e. workers shall not be exposed above the exposure limit values, which are based on various ICNIRP guidelines. In addition, the employer shall give particular attention, when carrying out the risk assessment, to any indirect effects amongst others such as temporary blinding. Alt...

    $28.00

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