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  • ILSC 2009 Paper #1501 (In the Safety Limbo: Simultaneous Illumination and Optical Wireless Communications with Light-emitting Diodes)

    In the Safety Limbo: Simultaneous Illumination and Optical Wireless Communications with Light-emitting Diodes
    Authors:
    Werner Horak, Siemens AG; Munich Germany
    Joachim Walewski, Siemens AG; Munich Germany
    Presented at ILSC 2009

    The high-speed modulation capabilities of white light-emitting LEDs offer a unique combination of illumination and simultaneous free-room data transmission and therewith a series of new and promising applications. However, the optical radiation safety requirements for this dual-use of LEDs are currently separately provided with two different standards: free-space optical communication with LEDs is (still) covered by the application-related part of the laser-...

    $28.00

  • ILSC 2009 Paper #1502 (Total on Time Pulse Method for Evaluating the Hazards from Pulsed Lasers)

    Total on Time Pulse Method for Evaluating the Hazards from Pulsed Lasers
    Authors:
    Wesley Marshall, US Army CHPPM; Gunpowder MD USA
    Presented at ILSC 2009

    Although the total on time pulse (TOTP) method has been successfully used to compute the maximum permissible exposure for repeated exposure to laser energy, some modification to the method must be made when the pulse duration is short and the pulse energies vary from pulse to pulse. Alternative methods to TOTP are presented for pulses of varying energy as well as a modification to the TOTP method that will provide a more accurate assessment of the hazards.

    $28.00

  • ILSC 2009 Paper #1504 (Laser Hazard Assessment with an Eye Simulator)

    Laser Hazard Assessment with an Eye Simulator
    Authors:
    Menachem Margaliot, Soreq NRC; - Israel
    Arie Amitzi, Soreq NRC ; Yavne Israel
    Presented at ILSC 2009

    Optical radiation entering the eye is focused on the retina and produces a focal spot of relatively high energy/power density. The size of this focal spot is the critical factor in determining the hazard classification of an optical source.
    For laser beams this focal spot is extremely small and hence - the high optical hazard of laser radiation.
    Analyzing the hazard classification of laser product is commonly conducted by computational methods, assuming the laser source specifications as provided by the device manufacturer, a...

    $28.00

  • ILSC 2009 Paper #1505 (Laser Classification of an Extended Source Laser System)

    Laser Classification of an Extended Source Laser System
    Authors:
    Penelope Galoff, U. S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine; Aberdeen Proving Ground MD USA
    Presented at ILSC 2009

    As more complex lasers are developed, the classification of these lasers is becoming increasingly more complex. A conservative laser classification can result from an incomplete hazard analysis. Extended source lasers require additional considerations for classification. The classification of a near-infrared (905 nm) laser rangefinder which is considered a point source for Condition 2 and an extended source for Condition 1 is presented. The measurements needed and the determination of maximum p...

    $28.00

  • ILSC 2009 Paper #201 (On the Time Dependence of the Laser-induced Retinal Injury Thresholds in the Nanosecond to Millisecond Time Domain)

    On the Time Dependence of the Laser-induced Retinal Injury Thresholds in the Nanosecond to Millisecond Time Domain
    Authors:
    David Lund, US Army Medical Research Detachment; San Antonio TX USA
    Presented at ILSC 2009

    The wavelength dependence of the MPE for retinal exposure to durations greater than
    1 nanoseconds have essentially unchanged since the 1970s (ANSI, ICNIRP, IEC). When guidance was included in 2000 for exposure durations less than 1 ns, the new MPE was set equal to the existing MPE at 1 nanoseconds. Recent studies have measured laser-induced retinal injury thresholds only a factor of 3 higher than the MPE for point-source exposure in NHP eyes for 3-5 ns duration exposures at 532 nm...

    $28.00

  • ILSC 2009 Paper #202 (Retinal Phototoxicity Observed using High-resolution Autofluorescence Imaging)

    Retinal Phototoxicity Observed using High-resolution Autofluorescence Imaging
    Authors:
    Jennifer J. Hunter, Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester; Rochester NY USA
    Jessica I. W. Morgan, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pennsylvania; Philadelphia PA USA
    William H. Merigan, Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester; Rochester NY USA
    David R. Williams, Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester; Rochester NY USA
    Presented at ILSC 2009

    The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) provides guidelines for the safe use of lasers from which maximum permissible exposures of laser light are calculated. This standard is used...

    $28.00

  • ILSC 2009 Paper #203 (Retinal Damage from NIR Laser Exposure)

    Retinal Damage from NIR Laser Exposure
    Authors:
    Benjamin A. Rockwell, Air Force Reserach Lab, AFRL 711 HPW/RHDO; San Antonio TX USA
    Rebecca Vincelette, Air Force Research Lab, AFRL 711 HPW/RHDO; Brooks City-Base TX USA
    Jeffrey W. Oliver, Air Force Research Lab, AFRL 711 HPW/RHDO; Brooks City-Base TX USA
    Semih Kumru, Air Force Research Lab, AFRL 711 HPW/RHDO; Brooks City-Base TX USA
    Gary D. Noojin, Northrop Grumman; San Antonio TX USA
    Kurt J. Schuster, Northrop Grumman; San Antonio TX USA
    David Stolarski, Northrop Grumman; San Antonio TX USA
    Aurora Shingledecker, Northrop Grumman; San Antonio TX USA
    C.D. Clar...

    $28.00

  • ILSC 2009 Paper #204 (Comparison of Afterimage Formation and Temporary Visual Acuity Disturbance after Exposure with Relatively Low Irradiance Levels of Laser and LED Light)

    Comparison of Afterimage Formation and Temporary Visual Acuity Disturbance after Exposure with Relatively Low Irradiance Levels of Laser and LED Light
    Authors:
    Hans-Dieter Reidenbach, Cologne University of Applied Sciences ; Koeln Germany
    Presented at ILSC 2009

    The employer in the European Union has to determine in a risk assessment according to the European Directive on Artificial Optical Radiation whether workers might be exposed above the exposure limit values, which are based on the respective ICNIRP guidelines. In addition, he shall give particular attention to any indirect effects amongst others such as temporary blinding.
    In order to obtain more information on transient effects, which a...

    $28.00

  • ILSC 2009 Paper #301 (Damage Thresholds for Scanned Exposure of the Retina)

    Damage Thresholds for Scanned Exposure of the Retina
    Authors:
    Karl Schulmeister, Austrian Research Centers GmbH; Seibersdorf Austria
    Bernhard Seiser, Austrian Research Centers Gesmbh; A-2444 Seibersdorf Austria
    Johannes Husinsky, Austrian Research Centers Gesmbh; A-2444 Seibersdorf Austria
    Mathieu Jean, Austrian Research Centers Gesmbh; A-2444 Seibersdorf Austria
    Beate Fekete, Austrian Research Centers Gesmbh; A-2444 Seibersdorf Austria
    Letizia Farmer, Austrian Research Centers Gesmbh; A-2444 Seibersdorf Austria
    Presented at ILSC 2009

    A computer model and bovine retinal explant were used to model thresholds for pulsed and scanned ...

    $28.00

  • ILSC 2009 Paper #302 (Damage Threshold from Large Retinal Spot Size Repetitive-pulse Laser Exposures)

    Damage Threshold from Large Retinal Spot Size Repetitive-pulse Laser Exposures
    Authors:
    Brian Lund, Northrop Grumman; San Antonio TX USA
    David Lund, Us Army Medical Research Detachment; Brooks City-Base TX USA
    Peter Edsall, Northrop Grumman; San Antonio TX USA
    Presented at ILSC 2009

    We have measured the retinal damage threshold for large spot size, multiple-pulse exposures to a Q-switched, frequency-double Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 7 ns pulses). A 500 m diameter retinal beam spot was used. The ED50 was determined for exposures to trains of 1, 3, 10, and 100 pulses at a pulse repetition frequency of 10 Hz. The ED50, expressed as the per-pulse energy, varies only weakly...

    $28.00

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