• ILSC 2007 Paper #1401 (Nanoparticles - Potential Risk during Pulsed Laser Ablation)

    Nanoparticles - Potential Risk during Pulsed Laser Ablation
    Authors:
    Anne Hahn, Laser Zentrum Hannover; Hannover Germany
    Andreas Ostendorf, Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V.; Hannover Germany
    Stephan Barcikowski, Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V.; Hannover Germany
    Presented at ILSC 2007

    Nanoparticles are generated as by-products during laser ablation. The size distribution of particlulate emission depends strongly on the applied laser pulse duration. The number frequency of nanoparticles may increase up to 99% with shorter pulse length. In order to provide safety-related statements on nanoparticles generated during laser materials processing, the particle size distribution during ...

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  • ILSC 2007 Paper #1402 (Laser Hazards from Pulsed Lasers)

    Laser Hazards from Pulsed Lasers
    Authors:
    Wesley Marshall, US Army CHPPM; APG MD USA
    Presented at ILSC 2007

    Determining the correct maximum permissible exposure (MPE) when a laser is pulsed becomes complex when the laser output beam consists not of regularly spaced pulses of short duration (tens of nanoseconds) and a moderate pulse repetition frequency (PRF), but instead consists of pulse groups that contain several short pulses of a few nanoseconds, or even shorter duration, inside of a macro-pulse that could last for tens of microseconds or even milliseconds. The structures of pulse trains are becoming ever more complicated in that groups of macro-pulses are sometimes repeated at a periodic ...

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  • ILSC 2007 Paper #1403 (Contrasting the Broad-Band Exposure Limits with Laser MPEs)

    Contrasting the Broad-Band Exposure Limits with Laser MPEs
    Authors:
    David Sliney, US Army CHPPM; Aberdeen Proving Ground MD USA
    Presented at ILSC 2007

    Whenever a laser specialist or an engineer employs a spreadsheet and compare and plot laser MPEs with broad-band limits, they see apparent differences and disconnects that can be quite puzzling. This is a particular concern of those trying to assess the optical risks of viewing bright LEDs. The rationale behind the two sets of exposure limits necessarily differ. For a laser, only the hazards at a wavelength of interest are reflected in the MPE, and competing hazard mechanisms lead to, at most, two limits, or "dual limits." However, with broad...

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  • ILSC 2007 Paper #1404 (Optical Fiber Communication Systems: Optical Amplifiers and Potential Exposure to Radiant Energy)

    Optical Fiber Communication Systems: Optical Amplifiers and Potential Exposure to Radiant Energy
    Authors:
    Anne Venetta Richard, Alcatel-Lucent; Westford MA USA
    Presented at ILSC 2007

    The evolution of optical fiber communication systems (OFCS) has seen a dramatic increase in the optical power within systems. Contemporary systems utilizing high-power optical amplifiers (OA) can operate at power levels well above one watt. While during intended use an OFCS is completely enclosed and radiant energy is inaccessible, however, during system development, deployment, maintenance and service, there is a potential risk for exposure. Typically, OA operate in the infrared "B" region of the electromagneti...

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  • ILSC 2007 Paper #1405 (Eye Safety Considerations of a Laser-Based Rail Flaw Detection System)

    Eye Safety Considerations of a Laser-Based Rail Flaw Detection System
    Authors:
    Fabrizio Prior, Technogamma, SPA; 31050 Morgano (TV) Italy
    Gregory Garcia, Transportation Technology Center, Inc.; Pueblo, CO USA
    Richard Hughes, High-Rez Diagnostics, Inc.; Camino CA USA
    Presented at ILSC 2007

    The Transportation Technology Center, Inc. (TTCI), USA and Tecnogamma SPA, Italy, have developed a prototype laser-based ultrasonic inspection system, identified as the U-Rail system, for non-contact rail inspection. Through the photo-acoustic effect, the absorption of nanosecond laser pulses by the rail results in the generation of both bulk and surface acoustic waves propagating wi...

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  • ILSC 2007 Paper #1406 (Empirical BRDF Modeling of a Window to Improve Accuracy of Laser Reflection Hazard Analyses)

    Empirical BRDF Modeling of a Window to Improve Accuracy of Laser Reflection Hazard Analyses
    Authors:
    George Megaloudis, Northrop Grumman Corporation; Andover MA USA
    Kenneth Keppler, Northrop Grumman Corporation; San Antonio TX USA
    Edward Early, Northrop Grumman Corporation; San Antonio TX USA
    Paul Kennedy, AFRL/HEDO; Brooks City-Base TX USA
    Presented at ILSC 2007

    Laser reflections from window surfaces have traditionally been treated as specular (i.e., the energy or power of the beam is reduced but the divergence of the beam remains unchanged). An empirical Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) model was developed for a spare aircraft win...

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  • ILSC 2007 Paper #1408 (Israeli Military Laser Safety Standard)

    Israeli Military Laser Safety Standard
    Authors:
    Noam Sapiens, NSLS Consulting; Rehovot Israel
    Gil Atar, IDF; Rehovot Israel
    Leonid Weisman, IDF; Rehovot Israel
    Michael Ben-Ezra, IDF; Rehovot Israel
    Presented at ILSC 2007

    The new legislation in Israel regarding laser safety adopts IEC60825-1 standard and sets further requirements for control and inspection. The ministry of defense and the Israeli defense forces are exempt from this new law.
    We have established a military laser safety committee to set a standard that will better suit the military. We have divided orders into three categories: military laboratories - are still bound by the state law. Mainten...

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  • ILSC 2007 Paper #1501 (Laser Safety Measurements of a Multiple Laser System)

    Laser Safety Measurements of a Multiple Laser System
    Authors:
    Mary Gorschboth, Naval Surface Warfare Center; Dahlgren VA USA
    Presented at ILSC 2007

    The Naval Sea Systems Command, as the Department of the Navy (DoN) Technical Lead Agent for laser safety, has established the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) Dahlgren Division as the Lead Navy Technical Laboratory (LNTL) for laser safety. Part of this responsibility includes the laser hazard evaluation of systems used on DoN installations or by DoN personnel. Furthermore, measures are recommended to eliminate exposure of personnel to hazardous optical radiation from these devices. The LNTL was requested to evaluate a tactical capabilities suite...

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  • ILSC 2007 Paper #1502 (Source Size Determination for Extended-source Lasers)

    Source Size Determination for Extended-source Lasers
    Authors:
    E. Christopher Brumage, US Army CHPPM; APG MD USA
    Wesley Marshall, US Army CHPPM; APG MD USA
    Presented at ILSC 2007

    Although the potential for viewing hazardous diffuse reflections from high-power lasers is ever present in research laboratories and industrial settings using open-beam, high-power lasers, low-power, extended-source lasers are rare. Lasers formed from a laser diode and a collimating lens or a laser formed by re-collimating a diffuse source comprise most of the extended-source laser products, and the output power or energy per pulse is often barely over the Class 1 accessible emission limit (AEL). Accurate...

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  • ILSC 2007 Paper #1504 (Source Size Measurement and Calculation of Visual Angle)

    Source Size Measurement and Calculation of Visual Angle
    Authors:
    Bret Rogers, Northrop Grumman; Brooks City-Base TX USA
    Wallace Mitchell, Northrop Grumman; San Antonio TX USA
    David Kee, Northrop Grumman; San Antonio TX USA
    Nathaniel Resendez, AFRL/HEDO; Brooks City-Base TX USA
    Peter Mastro, AFRL/HEDO; Brooks City-Base TX USA
    Presented at ILSC 2007

    Military and law enforcement seek to assess different light technologies and devices for potential operational use. Because small source lasers are bound by the point-source maximum permissible exposure (MPE), they have limited visual effectiveness at range. By introducing a diffusing optical eleme...

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