• ILSC 2007 Paper #1404 (Optical Fiber Communication Systems: Optical Amplifiers and Potential Exposure to Radiant Energy)

    Optical Fiber Communication Systems: Optical Amplifiers and Potential Exposure to Radiant Energy
    Authors:
    Anne Venetta Richard, Alcatel-Lucent; Westford MA USA
    Presented at ILSC 2007

    The evolution of optical fiber communication systems (OFCS) has seen a dramatic increase in the optical power within systems. Contemporary systems utilizing high-power optical amplifiers (OA) can operate at power levels well above one watt. While during intended use an OFCS is completely enclosed and radiant energy is inaccessible, however, during system development, deployment, maintenance and service, there is a potential risk for exposure. Typically, OA operate in the infrared "B" region of the electromagneti...

    $28.00

  • ILSC 2007 Paper #1405 (Eye Safety Considerations of a Laser-Based Rail Flaw Detection System)

    Eye Safety Considerations of a Laser-Based Rail Flaw Detection System
    Authors:
    Fabrizio Prior, Technogamma, SPA; 31050 Morgano (TV) Italy
    Gregory Garcia, Transportation Technology Center, Inc.; Pueblo, CO USA
    Richard Hughes, High-Rez Diagnostics, Inc.; Camino CA USA
    Presented at ILSC 2007

    The Transportation Technology Center, Inc. (TTCI), USA and Tecnogamma SPA, Italy, have developed a prototype laser-based ultrasonic inspection system, identified as the U-Rail system, for non-contact rail inspection. Through the photo-acoustic effect, the absorption of nanosecond laser pulses by the rail results in the generation of both bulk and surface acoustic waves propagating wi...

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  • ILSC 2007 Paper #1406 (Empirical BRDF Modeling of a Window to Improve Accuracy of Laser Reflection Hazard Analyses)

    Empirical BRDF Modeling of a Window to Improve Accuracy of Laser Reflection Hazard Analyses
    Authors:
    George Megaloudis, Northrop Grumman Corporation; Andover MA USA
    Kenneth Keppler, Northrop Grumman Corporation; San Antonio TX USA
    Edward Early, Northrop Grumman Corporation; San Antonio TX USA
    Paul Kennedy, AFRL/HEDO; Brooks City-Base TX USA
    Presented at ILSC 2007

    Laser reflections from window surfaces have traditionally been treated as specular (i.e., the energy or power of the beam is reduced but the divergence of the beam remains unchanged). An empirical Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) model was developed for a spare aircraft win...

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  • ILSC 2007 Paper #1408 (Israeli Military Laser Safety Standard)

    Israeli Military Laser Safety Standard
    Authors:
    Noam Sapiens, NSLS Consulting; Rehovot Israel
    Gil Atar, IDF; Rehovot Israel
    Leonid Weisman, IDF; Rehovot Israel
    Michael Ben-Ezra, IDF; Rehovot Israel
    Presented at ILSC 2007

    The new legislation in Israel regarding laser safety adopts IEC60825-1 standard and sets further requirements for control and inspection. The ministry of defense and the Israeli defense forces are exempt from this new law.
    We have established a military laser safety committee to set a standard that will better suit the military. We have divided orders into three categories: military laboratories - are still bound by the state law. Mainten...

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  • ILSC 2007 Paper #1501 (Laser Safety Measurements of a Multiple Laser System)

    Laser Safety Measurements of a Multiple Laser System
    Authors:
    Mary Gorschboth, Naval Surface Warfare Center; Dahlgren VA USA
    Presented at ILSC 2007

    The Naval Sea Systems Command, as the Department of the Navy (DoN) Technical Lead Agent for laser safety, has established the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) Dahlgren Division as the Lead Navy Technical Laboratory (LNTL) for laser safety. Part of this responsibility includes the laser hazard evaluation of systems used on DoN installations or by DoN personnel. Furthermore, measures are recommended to eliminate exposure of personnel to hazardous optical radiation from these devices. The LNTL was requested to evaluate a tactical capabilities suite...

    $28.00

  • ILSC 2007 Paper #1502 (Source Size Determination for Extended-source Lasers)

    Source Size Determination for Extended-source Lasers
    Authors:
    E. Christopher Brumage, US Army CHPPM; APG MD USA
    Wesley Marshall, US Army CHPPM; APG MD USA
    Presented at ILSC 2007

    Although the potential for viewing hazardous diffuse reflections from high-power lasers is ever present in research laboratories and industrial settings using open-beam, high-power lasers, low-power, extended-source lasers are rare. Lasers formed from a laser diode and a collimating lens or a laser formed by re-collimating a diffuse source comprise most of the extended-source laser products, and the output power or energy per pulse is often barely over the Class 1 accessible emission limit (AEL). Accurate...

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  • ILSC 2007 Paper #1504 (Source Size Measurement and Calculation of Visual Angle)

    Source Size Measurement and Calculation of Visual Angle
    Authors:
    Bret Rogers, Northrop Grumman; Brooks City-Base TX USA
    Wallace Mitchell, Northrop Grumman; San Antonio TX USA
    David Kee, Northrop Grumman; San Antonio TX USA
    Nathaniel Resendez, AFRL/HEDO; Brooks City-Base TX USA
    Peter Mastro, AFRL/HEDO; Brooks City-Base TX USA
    Presented at ILSC 2007

    Military and law enforcement seek to assess different light technologies and devices for potential operational use. Because small source lasers are bound by the point-source maximum permissible exposure (MPE), they have limited visual effectiveness at range. By introducing a diffusing optical eleme...

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  • ILSC 2007 Paper #1506 (Using Broadband Detectors for Measuring the Output of Broadband Sources such as White Light LEDs)

    Using Broadband Detectors for Measuring the Output of Broadband Sources such as White Light LEDs
    Authors:
    Woody Strzelecki, TUV Rheineland of North America; Newtown CT USA
    Nikolay Stoev, Valkom Laser Consulting; Toronto ON Canada
    Presented at ILSC 2007

    Broadband sources can be measured in different ways. Monochromators are used for measurements within narrow spectral intervals (typically a few nm). Bandpass filters are used for measurements within larger spectral windows, usually tens of nm. Special detectors, calibrated against the appropriate action spectrum may be used to directly measure the effective radiation values, i.e. the source emission weighted using the hazard function...

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  • ILSC 2007 Paper #1507 (Method to Measure Apparent Source Location and Angular Subtense of Extended Sources with Additional Optics)

    Method to Measure Apparent Source Location and Angular Subtense of Extended Sources with Additional Optics
    Authors:
    Clark Venzke, Banner Engineering Corp; Minneapolis MN USA
    Presented at ILSC 2007

    In using the international laser safety standard, IEC 60825-1, to classify a laser or light emitting diode (LED) source, the angular subtense (α) may need to be determined to calculate the accessible emission limits (AELs). The angular subtense is used to calculate the extended source correction factor (C6) and to determine the measurement geometry over much of the retinal hazard wavelength range. The easiest way to find a value for the angular subtense of the apparent source is to assume a conserva...

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  • ILSC 2007 Paper #1508 (Assessment of AEL for Scanning Lasers: Relaxed Eye)

    Assessment of AEL for Scanning Lasers: Relaxed Eye
    Authors:
    Bryan Tozer, Lasermet LTD; Dorset Great Britain
    Presented at ILSC 2007

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a new, more acceptable way of assessing the thermal retinal hazard arising from exposure to a scanning laser beam when the exposed eye is relaxed and therefore sees an image moving across the retina. For the situation where the eye fixes upon the scanning mirror, the image is stationary on the retina and therefore can be treated in the normal way prescribed in IEC 60825-1 for stationary beams; it is not addressed in this paper. This paper uses the existing model as used in assessing AELs and MPEs in 60825-1, including t...

    $28.00

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