R. J. Hull
M. L. Lander
Since 1976, the Laser Hardened Materials Evaluation Laboratory (LHMEL) has been characterizing material responses to laser energy in support of national defense programs and the aerospace industry. Now that capability is available to commercial industry as well. LHMEL's power levels, beam uniformity, and diagnostics capabilities make it an ideal facility for proof‐of‐concept testing or process development. Located at Wright‐Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, LHMEL is managed by the Wright Laboratory Materials Directorate and operated by Lawrence Associates, Incorporated. The facility's advanced hardware is centered aroun...
Paul J. Patt
The feasibility of using a diffractive optical element, a phase grating, as a beam handling device for use in industrial laser material processing is examined. The binary phase grating is an efficient beam splitting device and is useful in many materials processing operations (welding, cutting, soldering, drilling) where a high degree of parallelism could significantly improve process throughput. Overall efficiency of etched quartz binary gratings agrees well with published predictions (nominal 70–90%). Copies of the grating formed in PMMA (acrylic) survived preliminary life tests (more than 1000 9‐J pulses from a commercial multimode N...
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
The object of this study is to investigate the solidification problem in laser cladding with the wire feeding technique. The solidification phenomenon of laser cladding was analyzed by numerical simulation and experimental visualization. Good agreement has been obtained for 304 stainless steel wires cladding on round tubes and it transpires that there were three basic modes of clad profiles: thinning, thickening, and wavering of the clad thickness at different velocity settings between the feeding wire and the substrate in laser wire cladding. ©...
Departamento de Fi´sica Aplicada, Universidade de Vigo, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Vigo, 36310, Spain
Since the beginning of the aeronautic industry, aluminum alloys have played a crucial role in its development. Nowadays, different aluminum alloy families are the base material of many pieces of aerospace vehicles. In this work, a novel approach to process aluminum alloys is explored. The authors efforts are aimed to cut 2024-T3 plates by a CO2 laser. They used a novel laser cutting head assisted by a gas jet working in supersonic regim...
JLA Vol:24 Iss:3 (Investigation of the effects of basic laser material interaction parameters in laser welding)
W. J. Suder
S. W. Williams
Welding Engineering and Laser Processing Centre, Cranfield University, MK43 0AL, United Kingdom
The depth of penetration achieved in continuous wave (CW) laser welding results from a balance of many complicated phenomena, which are linked with the characteristics of the heat source. In this work, the laser welding process has been investigated in terms of basic laser material interaction parameters: power density and interaction time. It has been shown that these two parameters are insufficient to characterize the laser welding process. Thus, a third parameter, specific point energy, has been introduced, which along with the power densi...
North Salinas High School Salinas, CA 93906, U.S.A.
Laser light is an instant attention‐getter in the classroom; thus any activity which uses the laser as an instructional tool is sure to enhance student motivation. This paper discusses two demonstrations and one experiment involving laser applications that the author has found to be particularly beneficial in terms of (1) instructional effectiveness and (2) arousing the interest of high school physics students. Brief descriptions follow. Refraction through lenses can be nicely illustrated by splitting laser light into several parallel beams and directing them through a fish tank filled with a scatt...
JLA Vol:14 Iss:3 (Assessment of laser Doppler perfusion imager’s <em>in vivo</em> reliability: Can it be used for a prospective analysis?)
Damanpreet Singh Bedi
Joslin–Beth Israel Deaconess Foot Center, Department of Surgery, and Microcirculation Laboratory, Beth Israel–Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the laser Doppler perfusion imager (Lisca PIM 1.0; Lisca development, Linkoping, Sweden) for longitudinal analysis. We measured the skin blood flow under a biological zero condition at the forearm level in 84 patients enrolled in a 12 week prospective interventional trial. Sin...
Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1, Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047, Japan
Research and Development Center, Sumitomo Light Metal Industries, Ltd., 3-1-12 Chitose, Minato-ku, Nagoya 455-8670, Japan
School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502, Japan
Aluminum alloys are the focus of increasing attention from the automobile industry because of their light weight, high formability, and easy recyclability. In this report, a 4 kW high power direct diode laser was used to exami...
Richard J. Coyle
Patrick P. Solan
AT&T Bell Laboratories Engineering Research Center, Princeton, NJ 08542‐0900, U.S.A.
The majority of industrial lasers used in manufacturing are Class
IVlasers. Engineering and administrative control measures appropriate to that class of lasers must be enforced to ensure their safe use in production environments, i.e. they should be designed into Class 1 laser systems. In addition, several other design characteristics unique to industrial applications are normally incorporated into these Class Isystems, such as interlocked enclosures, process mon...
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