Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, U.S.A.
The ANSI Z 136.1 standard requires a standard operating procedure (SOP), however, it does not recommend or suggest a format for the SOP. The goal of this article is to outline, explain and suggest an SOP format that could be applied by a laser safety officer to a varied number of situations and laser uses.
Jeffrey R. Basford
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN, U.S.A. 55902
Low energy laser therapy has gained varying acceptance as a treatment for a broad range of soft tissue, musculoskeletal and neurological conditions. A controversial, but surprisingly large body of research with cell cultures suggests that laser irradiation can nondestructively alter cellular processes. Unfortunately, animal and human studies are often contradictory and difficult to evaluate due to differing study designs. As a result, the clinical effectiveness of low energy laser therapy remains debatable. Nevertheless, the findings are intriguing a...
JLA Vol:16 Iss:1 (Influence of surface preparation and process parameters on the porosity generation in aluminum alloys)
CLFA, avenue Prieur de la Côte d’or, 94114 Arcueil, France
A. B. Vannes
Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Ecully, France
The 4 kW cw Nd:yttrium–aluminum–garnet laser welding of solid solution hardened A5083 (5% Mg) and precipitation-hardened A356 (7% Si) alloys, sensitive to porosity formation was carried out at different welding speeds, under He gas shielding, and for partial penetration conditions, on bead on plate configuration. The porosity formation was examined through observation and evaluation of weld beads, based on x-ray radiography inspection coupled with image analysis, and quantification of gas...
Iranian National Centre for Laser Science and Technology (INLC), PO Box 14665-576 Tehran, Iran and Department of Physics, Amir Kabir University of Technology, PO Box 15875-4413 Tehran, Iran
Department of Physics, Amir Kabir University of Technology, PO Box 15875-4413 Tehran, Iran
Mohamad Javad Torkamany
Jamshid Sabbagh Zadeh
Iranian National Centre for Laser Science and Technology (INLC), PO Box 14665-576 Tehran, Iran
A two-dimensional thermal model of nanosecond pulsed laser ablation is developed to describe the physical processes, the plasma absorption, the crater profile, and the temp...
JLA Vol:20 Iss:2 (Design and validation of a hybrid laser/water-jet machining system for brittle materials)
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory for Lasers, MEMS and Nanotechnology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011-2161
A unique laser/water-jet (LWJ) cutting head has been designed, built, and interfaced with a CO2 laser for cutting and scribing of hard and brittle ceramic materials. Alumina samples were used to validate the effectiveness of the LWJ cutting head in thermal fracture mode. The results were compared with vaporization mode (focused beam) as well as thermal fracture mode (defocused beam) of air-assisted laser c...
J. L. Sun
W. M. Steen
K. G. Watkins
W. P. Brown
Direct laser cladding of Al alloy on mild steel produces continuous brittle intermetallic FexAly layers at the interface resulting in weak bonding of the clad and the substrate. To overcome this problem, both Ni and Al were investigated as intermediate coatings. Although a Ni coating with a thickness of 70 μm was successful in eliminating the formation of continuous Al‐Fe intermetallics, the bonding at the Al alloy/Ni interface was not strong enough to survive a bending test. A pure Al coating was found to be a better ...
JLA Vol:14 Iss:2 (Deformation behavior and microstructural changes of a hardened high carbon alloy steel in laser bending)
K. C. Chan
Department of Manufacturing Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong
In this article, the deformation behavior and microstructure of a hardened high carbon steel in laser bending were examined. A CO2 laser unit (TEM00) was used to bend the samples at different laser powers, scanning velocities, and number of scans. A relatively linear relationship between bending angle and number of scans was obtained at laser powers of 150 and 200 W and at a scanning velocity of 30 mm/s. A threshold heat input of about 3.25 J/mm was observed, below which bending was unlikely to occur. The bending angle was al...
J. Stuart Nelson
Michael W. Berns
Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, 1002 Health Sciences Road East, Irvine, California 92715
JLA Vol:18 Iss:3 (Femtosecond laser bulk micromachining of microfluid channels in poly(methylmethacrylate))
Dave F. Farson
Hae Woon Choi
Department of Industrial, Welding and Systems Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43221
L. James Lee
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43221
Internal channels in a polymer are widely used in biotechnology applications such as DNA stretching and in devices such as micrototal analysis systems and lab on a chip systems. For manufacturing prototype devices, femtosecond pulsed laser energy has been used to implement a convenient direct write bulk-machining process in glass. In this technique, the laser beam is focu...
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