John M. Kokosa
GMI Engineering & Management Institute, Flint, Michigan 48504 U.S.A.
Beckman Laser Institute, Irvine, California 92715 U.S.A.
Lasers are assuming an increasingly important role in surgical procedures. However, several studies have shown that the smoke produced by laser‐tissue interaction is an airway irritant. Preliminary studies in our laboratories have shown that potentially hazardous chemicals, including benzene, formaldehyde and acrolein are present in the smoke plume resulting from CO2 and Nd:YAG laser interaction with animal tissue, even at low power densities. Since these chemicals are classified a...
E. A. Metzbower
U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6324, Washington, DC 20375‐5000, U.S.A.
A. Edward Profio
T. F. Khoury
Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 U.S.A.
School of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada
The effective absorbed dose in photodynamic therapy is proportional to the concentration of the photosensitizer, as well as to the radiant energy fluence and concentration of oxygen. The concentration of dihematoporphyrin ether/ester (DHE) has been measured in tissue specimens by chemical extraction followed by spectrofluorimetry against a standard solution, and by an in vivo fluorometer probe calibrated ag...
Laser‐Aided Materials Processing Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana‐Champaign, 1206 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801, U.S.A.
Synthesis of nonequilibrium phases provides an opportunity to engineer new materials with novel properties. The technique of laser surface modification (LSM) provides a unique means of synthesizing novel non‐equilibrium materials by taking advantage of the inherent rapid heating and cooling rate of the process. LSM can be used to obtain specific surface properties significantly diffe...
Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad‐500 258, India
D. B. Goel
Department of Metallurgical Engineering, University of Roorkee, Roorkee‐247 667, India
A 5 KW CW CO2 laser has been used to alloy the surface of Ti6Al4V alloy with carbon. As a result the average microhardness was increased from 365 to 600 kg/mm.2 Compositional inhomogeneity was observed on the alloyed surface, however the compositional inhomogeneity index reduced considerably by cross scanning with defocused laser beam. Surface roughness of the alloyed surface was also studied and the roughn...
Richard P. Felten
Senior Chemist, Radiation Biology Branch, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration
C. Murray Penney
GE Corporate Research and Development, Schenectady, New York 12301
Johnson Laboratories, 383 Hillen Road, Towson, Maryland 21204
Laser triangulation ranging can provide data rates to at least 10,000 points per second, with resolution on the order of one thousandth of an inch, while observing strongly uncooperative targets through hostile environments. Data rate has been increased to greater than 100,000 points per second for applications requiring high resolution 3‐D maps of extended uncooperative surfaces. One successful approach to these applications is described. Also, several optical and engineering characteristic...
James W. Wagner
The Johns Hopkins University, Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Maryland Hall 102, Baltimore, Maryland 21218
Optical methods for detection of ultrasonic signals offer the potential for performing noncontact and remote sensing for ultrasonic inspection and acoustic emission testing of materials and structures. These capabilities are of particular advantage for sensing applications at elevated temperatures or in hostile environments. While a number of optical detection methods have been employed in the past, most efforts have involved the development of interferometric techniques of one form or another. Technological advances in conventional and holographic...
Chief of Dental Service, Ravenswood Hospital Medical Center and Wenske Laser Center, Chicago, Illinois
J. Stuart Nelson
Michael W. Berns
Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, 1002 Health Sciences Road East, Irvine, California 92715
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