• JLA Vol:15 Iss:2 (Antigalling and low friction properties of a laser processed Co-based material)

    D. H. E. Persson
    Duroc AB, Umeå, Sweden

    S. Jacobson
    S. Hogmark
    The Tribomaterials Group at Ångstro¨m Laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden

    The antigalling and low friction properties of a CO2-laser processed Co-based material (Stellite 21) was investigated under high-load sliding conditions. Dry sliding tests were carried out at both room temperature and at 250 °C. The tests were performed by sliding two identical specimens against each other in a dedicated test. A low and stable friction coefficient at a level of about 0.20, and relatively independent on load and sliding speed, was obtained after a short runn...


  • JLA Vol:19 Iss:2 (Interaction of a focused laser beam and a coaxial powder jet in laser surface processing)

    O. O. Diniz Neto
    A. M. Alcalde
    Instituto de Fi´sica, Universidade Federal de Uberlaˆndia, Caixa Postal 593, CEP 38400-902, Uberlaˆndia MG, Brazil

    R. Vilar
    Instituto Superior Te´cnico and ICEMS, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1096-001 Lisboa, Portugal

    Laser cladding, laser alloying, and laser free-form manufacturing are promising techniques where a laser beam is frequently used in conjunction with a coaxial powder jet for surface treating or rapid manufacturing. In the present work, a computational model was developed and used to simulate several experimental setups in order to optimize the processing conditions. More specifically, t...


  • JLA Vol:8 Iss:5 (A guide to developing a laser standard operating procedure)

    Ken Barat
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, U.S.A.

    The ANSI Z 136.1 standard requires a standard operating procedure (SOP), however, it does not recommend or suggest a format for the SOP. The goal of this article is to outline, explain and suggest an SOP format that could be applied by a laser safety officer to a varied number of situations and laser uses.


  • JLA Vol:2 Iss:1 (The Clinical Status of Low Energy Laser Therapy in 1989)

    Jeffrey R. Basford
    Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN, U.S.A. 55902

    Low energy laser therapy has gained varying acceptance as a treatment for a broad range of soft tissue, musculoskeletal and neurological conditions. A controversial, but surprisingly large body of research with cell cultures suggests that laser irradiation can nondestructively alter cellular processes. Unfortunately, animal and human studies are often contradictory and difficult to evaluate due to differing study designs. As a result, the clinical effectiveness of low energy laser therapy remains debatable. Nevertheless, the findings are intriguing a...


  • JLA Vol:17 Iss:4 (Developments towards controlled three-dimensional laser forming of continuous surfaces)

    S. P. Edwardson
    E. Abed
    P. French
    G. Dearden
    K. G. Watkins
    Laser Group, Department of Engineering, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GH, United Kingdom

    R. McBride
    D. P. Hand
    J. D. C. Jones
    A. J. Moore
    School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, United Kingdom

    There has been a considerable amount of work carried out on two-dimensional laser forming, using multipass straight line scan strategies to produce a reasonably controlled bend angle in a number of materials, including aerospace alloys. However, in order t...


  • JLA Vol:22 Iss:2 (Nd:YAG laser welding of titanium alloys using a directed gas jet)

    Jonathan Blackburn
    Laser Processing Research Centre, The University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD, United Kingdom

    Chris Allen
    Paul Hilton
    TWI Ltd., Granta Park, Abington, Cambridge CB21 6AL, United Kingdom

    Lin Li
    Laser Processing Research Centre, The University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD, United Kingdom

    The increasing utilization of titanium alloys in the aerospace industry, a direct result of socioeconomic pressures, has created the need for a production process which can produce high quality near-net-shape titanium alloy components. Keyhole laser welding is a joining technology which could be utilized for t...


  • JLA Vol:26 Iss:1 (Two-dimensional simulation of laser ablation with 235 nanosecond pulses)

    Sousan Ghalamdaran
    Iranian National Centre for Laser Science and Technology (INLC), PO Box 14665-576 Tehran, Iran and Department of Physics, Amir Kabir University of Technology, PO Box 15875-4413 Tehran, Iran

    Parviz Parvin
    Department of Physics, Amir Kabir University of Technology, PO Box 15875-4413 Tehran, Iran

    Mohamad Javad Torkamany
    Jamshid Sabbagh Zadeh
    Iranian National Centre for Laser Science and Technology (INLC), PO Box 14665-576 Tehran, Iran

    A two-dimensional thermal model of nanosecond pulsed laser ablation is developed to describe the physical processes, the plasma absorption, the crater profile, and the temp...


  • JLA Vol:9 Iss:1 (Laser cladding of Al‐Sn alloy on a mild steel)

    Z. Liu
    J. L. Sun
    W. M. Steen
    K. G. Watkins
    C. Lee
    W. P. Brown

    Direct laser cladding of Al alloy on mild steel produces continuous brittle intermetallic FexAly layers at the interface resulting in weak bonding of the clad and the substrate. To overcome this problem, both Ni and Al were investigated as intermediate coatings. Although a Ni coating with a thickness of 70 μm was successful in eliminating the formation of continuous Al‐Fe intermetallics, the bonding at the Al alloy/Ni interface was not strong enough to survive a bending test. A pure Al coating was found to be a better ...


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  • JLA Vol:1 Iss:3 (Chemical Composition of Laser‐Tissue Interaction Smoke Plume)

    John M. Kokosa
    GMI Engineering & Management Institute, Flint, Michigan 48504 U.S.A.

    John Eugene
    Beckman Laser Institute, Irvine, California 92715 U.S.A.

    Lasers are assuming an increasingly important role in surgical procedures. However, several studies have shown that the smoke produced by laser‐tissue interaction is an airway irritant. Preliminary studies in our laboratories have shown that potentially hazardous chemicals, including benzene, formaldehyde and acrolein are present in the smoke plume resulting from CO2 and Nd:YAG laser interaction with animal tissue, even at low power densities. Since these chemicals are classified a...



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