• JLA Vol:20 Iss:1 (Practical and theoretical investigations into inert gas cutting of 304 stainless steel using a high brightness fiber laser)


    Authors:
    Martin Sparkes
    Markus Gross
    Steven Celotto
    Tao Zhang
    William O’Neill
    Centre for Industrial Photonics, Institute for Manufacturing, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1RX, United Kingdom


    A 2.2 kW fiber laser was used in a series of inert cutting trials on stainless steels of section thicknesses in the range of 6–10 mm. Variations in the cutting performance with changing gas pressure, focal position, and nozzle diameter were investigated. Results showed the difficulties associated in cutting with high brightness lasers, specifically in obtaining full melt eject through narr...

    $25.00

  • JLA Vol:9 Iss:6 (Scaling laws for thick‐section cutting with a chemical oxygen–iodine laser)


    Authors:
    A. Kar
    J. A. Rothenflue
    W. P. Latham



    Almost all laser‐assisted materials processing involves melting, vaporization and plasma formation which affect the utilization of laser energy for materials processing. To account for the effect of these phases, an effective absorptivity is defined, and a simple mathematical model is developed for the cutting of thick‐section stainless steel using a high power chemical oxygen—iodine laser (COIL). The model is based on an overall energy balance, and it relates the cutting depth with various process parameters that can be used to predictively scale the laser materials processing performance to ...

    $25.00

  • JLA Vol:3 Iss:3 (Safety of Medical Excimer Lasers with an Emphasis on Compressed Gases)


    Authors:
    David H. Sliney
    Laser Microwave Division, US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010‐5422

    Terrance N. Clapham
    VISX, Inc., 919 Kifer Road, Santa Clara, CA 94086


    Excimer lasers which emit short ultraviolet radiation (UVR) are currently being used in experimental and developmental surgical applications. Although UVR exposure is possible, it is not normal in laser angioplasty (cardiovascular surgery) and is insignificant in photokera‐toplasty (ophthalmic surgery). However, significant potential hazards exist with the use of excimer laser gases such as fluorine and HCI. Stringent safeguards for handling and use are ...

    $25.00

  • JLA Vol:14 Iss:2 (Human behavioral factors in laser safety)


    Authors:
    Rick Mannix
    Environmental Health & Safety Office, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2725


    While training, engineering controls, warning signs/systems, and protective eyewear are emphasized in laser safety programs, laser-related accidents do occur in facilities without obvious deficiencies in those areas. Problems still occur because of insufficient attention to administrative safety issues directly related to human nature and behavioral factors. Common safety problems associated with behavioral factors are discussed. Personal experiences of the author, including lessons learned, are included. The issues are discussed within the context of laser safety, bu...

    $25.00

  • JLA Vol:18 Iss:3 (Modified dual-beam method for welding galvanized steel sheets in lap configuration)


    Authors:
    M. M. S. Gualini
    S. Iqbal
    Faculty of Applied Sciences, International I University, Islamabad, Pakistan

    F. Grassi
    Convergent Prima Industrie, Collegno (Turin), Italy


    The dual laser beams method to lap weld galvanized steel sheets is being discussed, modeled, and analyzed, involving a precursor beam and a higher-power actual beam used in tandem and generated independently or otherwise split from the same source (Nd:yttrium-aluminum-garnet or CO2 laser). The first beam cuts a slot, thus making an exit path for the zinc vapors, while the second beam welds as required. The article also presents and discusses some experiments performed ...

    $25.00

  • JLA Vol:25 Iss:3 (Evaluation of corneal and eye lens irradiance for optical aided viewing)


    Authors:
    Enrico Galbiati
    GEST Labs, Via Kennedy, 20871 Vimercate, Italy


    The use of a magnifying lens with a highly divergent laser beam may cause a big increase of the irradiance on the cornea and the eye lens. This study provides the analysis of several cases where the use of a lens lead to a corneal irradiance significantly higher than the naked-eye viewing. The examples analyzed in this study allow determining the factors that represent the increase of the corneal irradiance caused by the use of the lens. The results indicate that these factors of irradiance increase may be close to 100.

    $25.00

  • JLA Vol:24 Iss:2 (Laser dressing of metal bonded diamond blades for cutting of hard brittle materials)


    Authors:
    Philipp von Witzendorff
    Anas Moalem
    Rainer Kling
    Ludger Overmeyer
    Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover, Germany


    In this study, the authors investigate the laser dressing of metal bonded diamond blades by means of laser pulses with different pulse durations and wavelengths. Conventional dressing suffers from excessive blade wear, whereas laser dressing enables precise removal of the bonding metal to generate the required chip space of protruding diamond grains. The challenge for processing this composite material is to find appropriate level of ablation for the bonding metal without damaging the diamond grains thr...

    $25.00

  • JLA Vol:6 Iss:3 (Safety concerns about laser pointers)


    Authors:
    David H. Sliney
    Jerome E. Dennis



    In the past two years considerable concerns have been expressed about the safety of Class 3A laser pointers. The concern has been that Class 3A diode–laser pointers have replaced the safer helium–neon (He–Ne) Class 2 laser pointers. Hundreds of thousands of small He–Ne visible‐wavelength lasers have been traditionally used for alignment and pointing, laser demonstrations and laser displays in science, education and industry, but can the diode laser be as safe and effective? Not infrequently, some people associate “lasers” with Buck Rogers and “Star Wars”, and are concerned wh...

    $25.00

  • JLA Vol:16 Iss:4 (Microstructural aspects of laser dissimilar welds of hard metals to steels)


    Authors:
    A. Costa
    IDMEC, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal

    L. Quintino
    IDMEC, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal and Instituto Superior Te´cnico, Secc¸a˜o de Tecnologia Mecaˆnica, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal

    R. M. Miranda
    IDMEC, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal and Universidade Aberta, R. Escola Polite´cnica 147, 1269-001 Lisboa, Portugal


    Laser beam welding has been widely used in industry in the past decade. Recently, applications in dissimilar welds involving hard metals have been investigated. Hard metals are commonly used in tool manufacturing and this application...

    $25.00

  • JLA Vol:21 Iss:1 (Local susceptibility of the retina, formation and duration of afterimages in the case of Class 1 laser products, and disability glare arising from high-brightness light emitting diodes)


    Authors:
    Hans-Dieter Reidenbach
    Cologne University of Applied Sciences, Research Laboratory on Medical Technology and Non-Ionizing Radiation, Betzdorfer Str 2, 50679 Koeln, Germany


    According to the new European Directive on Artificial Optical Radiation, the employer has to determine the exposure and the assessment of risks and in addition, he shall give particular attention to any indirect effects, such as temporary blinding, when carrying out the risk assessment. Up to now, secondary effects such as temporary blinding have not been regarded in safety standards and there exist but a few data on this topic as far as modern artificial high-brightness (HB) light sources are concerned. Te...

    $25.00

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