• JLA Vol:8 Iss:4 (The role of oxygen pressure in laser cutting mild steels)

    A. Ivarson
    J. Powell
    C. Magnusson

    This paper presents the results of an experimental program investigating the effects of using high pressure oxygen as assist gas in combination with a pulsed laser while cutting medium thick mild steel plates. It was discovered that if the pulse conditions are optimized, the maximum cutting speed for a set average laser power could be increased by up to 10% compared to low oxygen pressure continuous wave (CW) laser cutting. The assist gas was found to have two optimum pressure ranges between which the material suffered from burning on the cut edge. The paper presents a phenomenological model to explain the ch...


  • JLA Vol:8 Iss:4 (Some aspects of laser heating of engineering materials)

    B. S. Yilbas
    A. Z. Al‐Garni
    Mechanical Eng. Dept., KFUPM, P.O. Box 1913, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia

    Laser induced heating processes are important when a laser is used as a machine tool in industry, since the quality of the machining process strongly depends on the heating mechanism. The present study examines a heat transfer model that provides useful information on the laser induced interaction mechanism. Steady state and time dependent heating models are introduced and temperature profiles inside the materials are predicted. Using appropriate assumptions, the time for the surface temperature to reach 90% of its steady state value is estimated. To valid...


  • JLA Vol:8 Iss:4 (Acoustic emission from modulated laser beam welding of materials)

    Hongping Gu
    W. W. Duley
    Guelph‐Waterloo Program for Graduate Work in Physics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1

    Acoustic emission during the laser welding of metals with a modulated CO2 laser beam has been investigated. Sharp resonances at many frequencies in the acoustic emission spectra have been observed. This was most noticeable when the average laser power was high enough to produce full penetration welds whose acoustic emission at high harmonics with frequencies that overlap with bands of vibrational frequencies corresponding to eigenmodes of the keyhole are greatly enhanced. Lower harmonics were not clearly observe...


  • JLA Vol:8 Iss:4 (Laser hazard evaluation method for middle infrared laser systems)

    Wesley J. Marshall
    Robert C. Aldrich
    Sheldon A. Zimmerman

    Hazard evaluation methods for lasers, with wavelengths greater than 1.4 μm (mostly in the middle infrared), have changed significantly in the current version of the American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers, ANSI Z136.1‐1993. A correct evaluation involves comparing the hazard potential based on two evaluation models; one based on individual pulses and the other based on an equivalent continuous‐wave exposure. An example of the hazard evaluation method within this spectral region is provided.


  • JLA Vol:8 Iss:4 (Integrated instruction: Lasers across the curriculum in an associate's degree program)

    R. Allen Shotwell
    Ivy Tech State College, 7999 U.S. Highway 41, Terre Haute, IN 47802, U.S.A.


  • JLA Vol:8 Iss:5 (Diode‐pumped Nd:YAG laser for precision laser machining)

    Jason Machan
    Marcy Valley
    Gerry Holleman
    Marc Mitchell
    Dave Burchman
    Jim Zamel
    George Harpole
    Hagop Injeyan
    Len Marabella
    TRW R1/1184, One Space Park, Redondo Beach, CA 90278, U.S.A.

    Results are presented on a high power, diode‐pumped, pulsed Nd:YAG laser for precision laser machining. The laser is an unstable resonator with a graded reflectivity outcoupler, generating a beam with excellent beam quality. The gain medium is a single zig‐zag slab, pumped symmetrically by diode arrays. The use of diode arrays minimizes the thermal loading on the slab, and the zig...


  • JLA Vol:8 Iss:5 (Laser drilling of advanced materials: Effects of peak power, pulse format, and wavelength)

    X. Chen
    W. T. Lotshaw
    A. L. Ortiz
    P. R. Staver
    C. E. Erikson
    M. H. McLaughlin
    T. J. Rockstroh

    The quality of laser‐drilled holes is significantly influenced by the laser peak power, pulse format, and wavelength. Three advanced materials are used to demonstrate the importance of choosing the correct laser parameters for a specific material. The materials are: (1) intermetallic single crystal nickel aluminide (NiAl) alloy; (2) N5, a single crystal nickel‐based superalloy; and (3) a silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic matrix composite (CMC). The laser peak power is varied in terms of the pulse...


  • JLA Vol:8 Iss:6 (Laser surface alloying of magnesium base alloys)

    R. Galun
    A. Weisheit
    B. L. Mordike
    Institut fu¨r Werkstoffkunde und Werkstofftechnik, Technische Universita¨t Clausthal, Agricolastraße 6, D‐38678 Clausthal‐Zellerfeld, Germany

    The feasibility of the laser surface alloying of magnesium base alloys with aluminum, copper, nickel and silicon has been shown in this work. By laser alloying with these elements, using a 5 kW CO2‐laser, the hardness of several magnesium base alloys can be increased to values above 250 HV0.1. Melted depths from 700–1200 μm and alloying contents from 15–55 at % were achieved. The wear resistance of ...


  • JLA Vol:8 Iss:6 (Welding of aluminum: A challenging opportunity for laser technology)

    Friedrich Dausinger
    Ju¨rgen Rapp
    Markus Beck
    Frank Faisst
    Ru¨diger Hack
    Helmut Hu¨gel
    Universita¨t Stuttgart, Institut fu¨r Strahlwerkzeuge (IFSW), Pfaffenwaldring 43, D‐70569 Stuttgart, Germany

    The increasing demand for lightweight structures has led to a greater industrial use of aluminum alloys. The application of these materials is handicapped by a lack of productivity and reliability in the joining techniques currently available. The laser welding of aluminum is markedly more difficult than for steel. The difficulties to be solved include the threshold for deep penetration welding...


  • JLA Vol:8 Iss:6 (A modeling study on the influence of pulse shaping on keyhole laser welding)

    P. S. Mohanty
    A. Kar
    J. Mazumder

    A theoretical analysis describing the effects of pulse shaping on keyhole laser welding is presented. Calculation of the keyhole profile and melt pool dimensions was performed by the balancing of surface forces and energy at the liquid‐vapor and solid‐liquid interfaces in three dimensions. The effect of temporal pulse shape on weld dimensions has been examined over a range of power densities, pulse times and pulse frequencies. Several pulse types (e.g., top‐hat, Gaussian, ramp‐up and ramp‐down pulses) have been considered. Pulse shaping showed significant effect on the weld dimensio...



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