• JLA Vol:1 Iss:4 (Laser System for Dulling Work Roll by Q‐Switched Nd:YAG Laser)


    Authors:
    K. Minamida
    J. Suehiro
    T. Toshimitu
    T. Kawamoto
    R & D Laboratories‐I, Central R & D Bureau, Nippon Steel Corporation, 1618 Ida, Nakahara‐ku, Kawasaki 211, Japan


    A new dulling system for the work rolls used to roughen the surface of cold‐rolled steel sheet has been developed. Such sheets are used in various products, such as outer panels of automobiles, and decorative outer plates of electric appliances. In this process, several pulsed laser beams generated by Q‐switched Nd:YAG lasers produce small craters with rims around them. This process includes a longitudinal scanning system...

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  • JLA Vol:1 Iss:4 (Optical Engineering — A New Form of Industrial Energy)


    Authors:
    W. M. Steen

    A brief review OF the development of civilization on this planet leads to a fairly strong correlation between our ability to apply new forms of energy and the growth of our quality of life. With the comparatively recent invention of the laser, optical energy has become available in a form and at intensities which can be applied. This article examines some of the differences between optical energy and other forms of industrial energy with a view to suggesting where future growth may occur and why our grand‐children may bask in a higher quality of life due to our efforts to apply this new form of energy. Some of the principle differences noted are: the current laser ...

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  • JLA Vol:1 Iss:4 (Optical Methods in Flow Visualization)


    Authors:
    Wen‐Jei Yang
    Yi Chen
    Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109


    Optical techniques for flow visualization are presented, including light‐sheet flow visualization, shadowgraphy, schlieren method, interferometry, holography, speckle photography, laser‐induced fluorescence and thermography. The principles of these methods are briefly described and the examples of their applications to flow visualization are given.

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  • JLA Vol:1 Iss:4 (Recent Developments in Laser Melt/Particle Injection Processing)


    Authors:
    K. P. Cooper
    Geo‐Centers, Inc., 10903 Indian Head Highway, Fort Washington, Maryland 20744

    P. Slebodnick
    Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375.


    Investigations into crack formation in particle injected surfaces and into microstructural evolution during cladding were some of the recent developments in laser melt/particle injection processing. Both surface modification techniques involved blowing powder particles into a melt pool formed by a laser beam. When the particulate materials were metal carbides composite surface layers were formed and the thermal stresses that developed during cooling of the carbide injected layer resulted in th...

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  • JLA Vol:1 Iss:4 (The Use of High‐Frequency Pulsed Laser Diodes in Fringe Type Laser Doppler Anemometry)


    Authors:
    D. Dopheide
    H. Pfeifer
    M. Faber
    G. Taux
    Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), D‐3300 Braunschweig, Bundesallee 100, Germany


    The benefits obtained by using pulsed laser diodes with repetition rates much higher than the Doppler frequency are described and the advantages over cw‐ and long‐pulse operation are shown. These benefits are achieved by several characteristics of pulsed laser operation. First, in pulsed mode the time‐averaged number of photons may be considerably higher than in cw‐mode. Second, for some of the LDA data acquisition systems the laser pulses can be synchronized with the sampl...

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  • JLA Vol:14 Iss:1 (A multi-input and multioutput dynamic model for laser marking of ceramic materials)


    Authors:
    A. A. Peligrad
    E. Zhou
    D. Morton
    Faculty of Technology, Bolton Institute, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5AB, United Kingdom

    L. Li
    Laser Processing Research Centre, Department of Mechanical Engineering, UMIST, Sackville Street, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD, United Kingdom


    There are many process parameters that influence the results of laser marking of ceramic materials. Some parameters should be kept within certain tolerance limits to ensure the expected quality of the laser processing. Hence a closed loop control system may be desirable during the process for quality control. For this, an accurate multi-input and multioutput dynamic...

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  • JLA Vol:14 Iss:1 (A procedure for laser hazard classification under the Z136.1-2000 American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers)


    Authors:
    Robert J. Thomas
    Benjamin A. Rockwell
    Air Force Research Laboratory, Brooks AFB, Texas 78235-5215

    Wesley J. Marshall
    USACHPPM, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010-5422

    Robert C. Aldrich
    Sheldon A. Zimmerman
    Dahlgren Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, Virginia 22448-5100

    R. James Rockwell
    Rockwell Laser Industries, Cincinnati, Ohio 45243


    Over the past few years, a comprehensive rewrite of the American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers (ANSI Z136.1) has been conducted. The ANSI Z136.1 is a user standard, as opposed to a manufacturer standard like the Federal Las...

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  • JLA Vol:14 Iss:1 (Cutting of slate tiles by CO<sub>2</sub> laser)


    Authors:
    M. Boutinguiza
    F. Lusquin˜os
    J. Pou
    R. Soto
    F. Quintero
    M. Pe´rez-Amor
    Departamento Fı´sica Aplicada Universidade de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende 9, E-36200 VIGO, Spain

    K. Watkins
    Laser Engineering Group, Department of Engineering, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GH, United Kingdom


    Slate is a natural stone which has the characteristic that shows a well-developed defoliation plane, allowing to easily split it in plates parallel to that plane which are particularly used as tiles for roof building. At present, the manufacturing of slate is mostly manual, bein...

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  • JLA Vol:14 Iss:1 (Experimental study on surface decontamination by laser ablation)


    Authors:
    X. Zhou
    K. Imasaki
    H. Furukawa
    C. Yamanaka
    Institute for Laser Technology, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan

    S. Nakai
    Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan


    A high-power pulsed Nd:YAG laser was employed to irradiate a 20-μm-thick Zn coating on a carbon steel surface. The ablation rate was defined as ablated volume divided by consumed laser energy, and was used to assess ablation cleaning ability. The relationships of ablation rate to laser pulse width and ablation rate to laser fluence were investigated, and optimal processing conditions were dete...

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  • JLA Vol:14 Iss:1 (Laser marginal lap microwelding for ultrathin sheet metal)


    Authors:
    J. Du
    School of Optics, Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816

    J. Longobardi
    Metal Tech Industries, 525 Lawler Street, Iowa Falls, Iowa 50126

    W. P. Latham
    Air Force Research Laboratory, Directed Energy Directorate, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue SE, Kirland AFB, New Mexico 87117-5776

    A. Kar
    School of Optics, Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816


    Butt welding is practically difficult f...

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