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  • JLA Vol:22 Iss:1 (Finite volume model for laser-soot interaction for a laser transmission welding process)

    L. S. Mayboudi
    A. M. Birk
    G. Zak
    Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada

    P. J. Bates
    Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College, Kingston, Ontario K7K 7B4, Canada

    Laser transmission welding, a technique to join thermoplastic components, involves a laser beam passing through a laser-transmitting part being absorbed by a laser-absorbing part at the weld interface. The heat generated at the interface melts a thin layer of the plastic in both parts and forms a joint. Laser-absorbing agents such as dyes or soot particles are added to the laser-absorbing part to...


  • JLA Vol:9 Iss:5 (Characteristics of Nd:YAG laser welded high carbon steels)

    Eng S. Ng
    Ian A. Watson
    Laser and Optical System Engineering Centre, Department of Mechanical Engineering, James Watt Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, U.K.

    A quantitative study of the relationship between the laser process parameters and the mechanical properties of welded high carbon steels was performed utilizing a Lumonics Nd:YAG pulsed laser, operating at 1.06μm, and a robotically manipulated fiber optic beam delivery system. A gage plate (0.88 mm thick) was butt welded with a constant power of 200 W and a He shielding gas was used at a pressure of 5 × 104 Pa. The welding performance of the Nd:YAG laser was strongly affect...


  • JLA Vol:3 Iss:3 (The Role of Oxidation in Laser Cutting Stainless and Mild Steel)

    A. Ivarson
    J. Powell
    C. Magnusson

    This paper gives the results of a detailed examination of the particles ejected from the cut zone during CO2 laser cutting of mild and stainless steels. Cuts were carried out over a range of material thickness at the optimum speed for each at a laser power of 900 Watts. Particles ejected from the cut zone were collected and analyzed to establish their chemical and physical characteristics. Analysis techniques included Scanning Electron Microscopy, wet chemical analysis, optical microscopy, metallography and particle sizing. The results from this extensive analysis have enabled the authors to estimate the...


  • JLA Vol:15 Iss:4 (Excimer laser fabrication of polymer microfluidic devices)

    Joohan Kim
    Xianfan Xu
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907

    Silicon has been a primary material for fabrication of microelectromechanical systems (microfluidic devices in MEMS) for several decades. This is due to the fact that the MEMS techniques were derived from those used for microfabrication in the semiconductor industry. These techniques are well developed, and can be readily applied for silicon based MEMS fabrication. Nowadays, alternative manufacturing materials and techniques are needed for reducing costs and meeting new requirements. Polymers have many advantages because of their low costs and applications in ...


  • JLA Vol:20 Iss:1 (Dynamic bidirectional reflectance distribution functions: Measurement and representation)

    Albert W. Bailey
    Edward A. Early
    Kenneth S. Keppler
    Victor I. Villavicencio
    Northrop Grumman, 4241 Woodcock Drive, Suite B-100, San Antonio, Texas 78238

    Paul Kennedy
    Robert J. Thomas
    Justin J. Zohner
    Human Effectiveness Directorate, Directed Energy Bioeffects Division, Optical Radiation Branch, Air Force Research Laboratory, 2624 Louis Bauer Drive, Brooks City-Base, Texas 78235

    George Megaloudis
    Northrop Grumman, 100 Brickstone Square, Andover, Massachusetts 01810

    With high-energy lasers, not only the direct laser beam can pose significant eye and skin hazards, but als...


  • JLA Vol:25 Iss:3 (The influence of position in overlap joints of Mg and Al alloys on microstructure and hardness of laser welds)

    S. Bannour
    Unite´ de Thermique et Thermodynamique des Proce´de´s Industriels, Ecole Nationale d'Inge´nieurs de Monastir, Avenue Ibn Jazzar, 5019 Monastir, Tunisia and Institut de Me´canique de Marseille, Laboratoire IUSTI, UMR CNRS 6595, Universite´ de la Me´diterrane´e—Aix-Marseille Universite´, Technopoˆle de Chaˆteau- Gombert, 60 rue Joliot Curie, 13453 Marseille Cedex 13, France

    K. Abderrazak
    Unite´ de Thermique et Thermodynamique des Proce´de´s Industriels, Ecole Nationale d'Inge´nieurs de Monastir, Avenue Ibn Jazzar, 5019 Monastir, Tunisia

    S. Mattei


  • JLA Vol:24 Iss:1 (Hazard class downscaling of a class 4 retina safe laser)

    Jed A. Simmons
    Alan B. Marchant
    Energy Dynamics Laboratory, North Logan, Utah 84341

    A class 4 pulsed laser can be operated in a safe regime without reducing instantaneous irradiance or pulse energy by shortening its dwell time through duty cycle reduction or scanning. A conservative relationship for hazard distance as a function of scan rate is derived for the case of a scanning, retina safe laser.


  • JLA Vol:6 Iss:3 (Attenuation of laser radiation by particles during laser materials processing)

    F. Hansen
    W. W. Duley
    Guelph‐Waterloo Centre for Graduate Work in Physics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1

    The extinction, absorption and scattering of laser radiation by small aerosol particles of Fe, Fe3O4, Al, and Al2O3 have been calculated using Mie theory at wavelengths of 1.06 and 10.6 μm. It is shown that the attenuation of incident laser radiation by particles with radii r in the range 10 nm ⩽ r ⩽ 10 μm can be significant over pathlengths as small as 10−2 m when the ratio of aerosol mass density to solid density, M/ρ &...


  • JLA Vol:14 Iss:2 (An investigation of rapid prototyping of sand casting molds by selective laser sintering)

    G. Casalino
    L. A. C. De Filippis
    A. D. Ludovico
    L. Tricarico
    Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica e Gestionale, Politecnico di Bari, 70126 Bari, Italy

    Among the layer fabrication techniques, selective laser sintering (SLS), is widely used for manufacturing various products made of different materials (i.e., polycarbonates, nylons, polyamides, sand casting, metal powders, and others). The SLS of precoated foundry sands allows the aggregation of adjacent particles, which are then cemented by furnace heat treatment. Moreover, geometrically complex molds and cores not obtainable with conventional methods can be realized by this method. In th...


  • JLA Vol:18 Iss:2 (Laser helical drilling of silicon wafers with ns to fs pulses: Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy characterization of drilled through-holes)

    J. Kaspar
    A. Luft
    Fraunhofer Institut fu¨r Werkstoff- und Strahltechnik, Winterbergstr.28, D-01277 Dresden, Germany

    S. Nolte
    M. Will
    Institut fu¨r Angewandte Physik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universita¨t, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena, Germany

    E. Beyer
    Fraunhofer Institut fu¨r Werkstoff- und Strahltechnik, Winterbergstr.28, D-01277 Dresden, Germany

    Electron microscopic methods (scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy) are used to characterize the precision and quality of microthrough-holes produced in 0.4 mm-thick silicon wafers by applying the pulsed laser helical drill...



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