This paper gives the results of a detailed examination of the particles ejected from the cut zone during CO2 laser cutting of mild and stainless steels. Cuts were carried out over a range of material thickness at the optimum speed for each at a laser power of 900 Watts. Particles ejected from the cut zone were collected and analyzed to establish their chemical and physical characteristics. Analysis techniques included Scanning Electron Microscopy, wet chemical analysis, optical microscopy, metallography and particle sizing. The results from this extensive analysis have enabled the authors to estimate the...
JLA Vol:17 Iss:3 (High-speed scanning laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at 1000 Hz with single pulse evaluation for the detection of inclusions in steel)
Fraunhofer-Institut fu¨r Lasertechnik (ILT), Steinbachstr. 15, 52074 Aachen, Germany
ThyssenKrupp Stahl AG, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Str. 100, 47166 Duisburg, Germany
Spatially resolved information about the distribution and chemical composition of inclusions in steel are gained by scanning methods, such as scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis or capillary-X-ray flourescence. Scanning laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) offers dis...
JLA Vol:22 Iss:1 (Finite volume model for laser-soot interaction for a laser transmission welding process)
L. S. Mayboudi
A. M. Birk
Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada
P. J. Bates
Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College, Kingston, Ontario K7K 7B4, Canada
Laser transmission welding, a technique to join thermoplastic components, involves a laser beam passing through a laser-transmitting part being absorbed by a laser-absorbing part at the weld interface. The heat generated at the interface melts a thin layer of the plastic in both parts and forms a joint. Laser-absorbing agents such as dyes or soot particles are added to the laser-absorbing part to...
JLA Vol:25 Iss:3 (The influence of position in overlap joints of Mg and Al alloys on microstructure and hardness of laser welds)
Unite´ de Thermique et Thermodynamique des Proce´de´s Industriels, Ecole Nationale d'Inge´nieurs de Monastir, Avenue Ibn Jazzar, 5019 Monastir, Tunisia and Institut de Me´canique de Marseille, Laboratoire IUSTI, UMR CNRS 6595, Universite´ de la Me´diterrane´e—Aix-Marseille Universite´, Technopoˆle de Chaˆteau- Gombert, 60 rue Joliot Curie, 13453 Marseille Cedex 13, France
Unite´ de Thermique et Thermodynamique des Proce´de´s Industriels, Ecole Nationale d'Inge´nieurs de Monastir, Avenue Ibn Jazzar, 5019 Monastir, Tunisia
Jed A. Simmons
Alan B. Marchant
Energy Dynamics Laboratory, North Logan, Utah 84341
A class 4 pulsed laser can be operated in a safe regime without reducing instantaneous irradiance or pulse energy by shortening its dwell time through duty cycle reduction or scanning. A conservative relationship for hazard distance as a function of scan rate is derived for the case of a scanning, retina safe laser.
W. W. Duley
Guelph‐Waterloo Centre for Graduate Work in Physics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1
The extinction, absorption and scattering of laser radiation by small aerosol particles of Fe, Fe3O4, Al, and Al2O3 have been calculated using Mie theory at wavelengths of 1.06 and 10.6 μm. It is shown that the attenuation of incident laser radiation by particles with radii r in the range 10 nm ⩽ r ⩽ 10 μm can be significant over pathlengths as small as 10−2 m when the ratio of aerosol mass density to solid density, M/ρ &...
School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907
Silicon has been a primary material for fabrication of microelectromechanical systems (microfluidic devices in MEMS) for several decades. This is due to the fact that the MEMS techniques were derived from those used for microfabrication in the semiconductor industry. These techniques are well developed, and can be readily applied for silicon based MEMS fabrication. Nowadays, alternative manufacturing materials and techniques are needed for reducing costs and meeting new requirements. Polymers have many advantages because of their low costs and applications in ...
JLA Vol:20 Iss:1 (Dynamic bidirectional reflectance distribution functions: Measurement and representation)
Albert W. Bailey
Edward A. Early
Kenneth S. Keppler
Victor I. Villavicencio
Northrop Grumman, 4241 Woodcock Drive, Suite B-100, San Antonio, Texas 78238
Robert J. Thomas
Justin J. Zohner
Human Effectiveness Directorate, Directed Energy Bioeffects Division, Optical Radiation Branch, Air Force Research Laboratory, 2624 Louis Bauer Drive, Brooks City-Base, Texas 78235
Northrop Grumman, 100 Brickstone Square, Andover, Massachusetts 01810
With high-energy lasers, not only the direct laser beam can pose significant eye and skin hazards, but als...
W. W. Duley
Guelph‐Waterloo Program for Graduate Work in Physics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1
Acoustic emission during the laser welding of metals with a modulated CO2 laser beam has been investigated. Sharp resonances at many frequencies in the acoustic emission spectra have been observed. This was most noticeable when the average laser power was high enough to produce full penetration welds whose acoustic emission at high harmonics with frequencies that overlap with bands of vibrational frequencies corresponding to eigenmodes of the keyhole are greatly enhanced. Lower harmonics were not clearly observe...
R. W. Waynant
M. N. Ediger
Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857
The basic characteristics of fibers that are appropriate for surgical use in the infrared are reviewed. New fiber materials, such as sapphire, fluorozirconate and chalcogenide glasses, and polycrystalline fibers are discussed as well as their applicability for surgical procedures.
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