John M. Kokosa
GMI Engineering & Management Institute, Flint, MI, U.S.A.
Despite evidence to the contrary, until recently many laser operators believed, or at least stated, that the only chemical by‐products of laser processing of any consequence were water and CO2. During the last eight years, especially, several investigations have shown that hazardous materials are produced when cutting or welding nearly all substrates. In the following paper, the major chemical hazards associated with processing metals, inorganics, biomaterials, and polymers are outlined.
Laser-Aided Manufacturing, Materials and Micro-Processing (LAMMMP) Laboratory, College of Optics and Photonics, Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers (CREOL), Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816-2700
W. P. Latham
Air Force Research Laboratory, Directed Energy Directorate, 3550 Aberdeen, Avenue SE, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico 87117-5776
Laser-Aided Manufacturing, Materials and Micro-Processing (LAMMMP) Laboratory, College of Optics and Photonics, Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers (CREOL), Mechanical, Materials and ...
JLA Vol:22 Iss:2 (Studies on characteristics of CO<sub>2</sub> laser-GTAW hybrid welding of austenitic stainless steel)
B. T. Rao
L. M. Kukreja
Laser Material Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, P.O. CAT, Indore 452 013, India
H. S. Vora
Laser System Engineering Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, P.O. CAT, Indore 452 013, India
The present paper describes an experimental hybrid welding study, involving CO2 laser and gas tungsten arc welding, on 6 mm thick austenitic stainless steel sheet. The study focused on real-time plasma monitoring during welding and metallographic examination of the resultant weldments. Coupling of...
JLA Vol:8 Iss:5 (Taking advantage of laser properties to enhance demonstrations and student laboratories)
Michele L. Brill
Camden County College — Physics/Lasers, Box 200, Blackwood, NJ 08012, U.S.A.
This paper reflects the proceedings of a workshop for local educators provided by Camden County College Laser Curriculum faculty which addressed the question: ‘How can the teacher take advantage of laser properties to improve or enhance demonstrations and student labs?’ Explored here are illustrative ways in which to utilize, for educational purposes, the three well‐known characteristics of lasers: directionality, monochromaticity, and coherence. There is a faculty overlap between the Physics Department and the Laser Curriculum faculty at the college. The use...
JLA Vol:16 Iss:1 (Laser-assisted chemical cleaning for oxide-scale removal from carbon steel surfaces)
Department of Mechanical Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784, Korea
The article introduces a novel laser chemical processing technique for removing thin oxide layers on low-carbon steel surfaces by combining laser-induced shock waves and the chemical cleaning technique that is currently utilized in the conventional oxide-scale removal. A Q-switched Nd:yttritium–aluminum–garnet laser (wavelength 1064 nm, full width at half maximum 6 ns) induces optical breakdown in the acid solution, producing intense pressure waves which act as a noncontact scale breaker. It has been demonstrated that the novel process leads to substa...
JLA Vol:26 Iss:1 (Periodic antireflection surface structure fabricated on silicon by four-beam laser interference lithography)
CNM and JR3CN, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022, China and CHO, Changchun Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory, CAS, Changchun 130117, China
CNM and JR3CN, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022, China and JR3CN, University of Bedfordshire, Luton LU1 3JU, United Kingdom
CNM and JR3CN, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022, China
Silicon surface structures with excellent antireflection property arouse wide interest. Chemical and physical methods such as femtosecond, nanosecond, and picosecond la...
JLA Vol:20 Iss:2 (<em>In vivo</em> and <em>in vitro</em> evaluation of the corneal damage induced by 1573 nm laser radiation)
Service de Radiobiologie et d’Oncologie, IRCM-DSV, Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique, BP 6, Fontenay aux roses, 92265, France
Service d’Immuno-Virologie, IMETI-DSV, Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique, BP 6, Fontenay aux roses, 92265, France
Lasers Optique et Thermique, CEP, Direction des Centres d’Essai et d’Expertise, 16bis avenue Prieur de la Cŏte d’Or, 94114, Arcueil, France
This study involved the corneal effects of t...
JLA Vol:9 Iss:1 (Continuous wave Nd:YAG laser cladding modeling: A physical study of track creation during low power processing)
D. F. Grevey
A. B. Vannes
This paper concerns the modeling of cladding using an Nd:YAG laser operating at low powers typically less than 800 W. Experimental observation of the evolution of the mass of the clads shows two power thresholds. The theoretical study relies on a calculation of the fluence provided to the substrate and on a model of heat transfer into the substrate. We suggest that the first threshold is the power required for substrate melting. The second power is the threshold when the powder is directly melted by the beam and is therefore a liquid when contacting the substrate.
T. J. Glynn
National Centre for Laser Applications, Physics Dept., University College, Galway, Ireland
Laser safety standards are detailed technical documents arising from the complexity of the different mechanisms, depending on the parameters of the laser beam, by which lasers interact with living tissue. As a result, their interpretation by non‐expert laser users, who are concerned about safety issues, can cause many difficulties. Based on experience in advising industrial and medical laser users, we have developed a primer which (
i) provides step‐by‐step guidance in the interpretation and use of the laser saf...
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