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Product Code: ICA13_1002

Numerical Simulation and Experimental Investigation of Three-Dimensional Gas-Jet Transportation of Powder Particles In Direct Material Deposition
Authors:
Pascal Aubry, Stamp, Arts Et MéTiers Paristech; Paris France
Oleg Kovalev, KhristianovichS Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics; Novosibirsk Russia
Alexander Zaitsev, KhristianovichS Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics; Novosibirsk Russia
Irina Kovaleva, Dipi Laboratory; Saint-Etienne France
Igor Smurov, Dipi Laboratory; Saint-Etienne France
Rezak Mezari, Stamp, Arts Et MéTiers Paristech; Paris France
Thierry Malot, Stamp, Arts Et MéTiers Paristech; Paris France
Kevin Verdier, Stamp, Arts Et MéTiers Paristech; Paris France
Presented at ICALEO 2013

The direct material deposition (DMD) enables to realize a layer-by-layer material deposition and produce 3D metal objects of any degree of complexity. It is necessary to have quantitative information about the basic physical processes for optimization the technological regimes of laser prototyping.
This paper presents the results of studies of processes of DMD with the use of radiation of CO2-laser with the power up to 5 kW and the length of the wave of 10.6 microns. Three-dimensional physical and mathematical model of gas-jet transportation of powder particles (alloy of TA6V, with the grain size two types: 24 -45μm, 45-75μm) has been developed. A detailed research of gas and powder stream parameters for triply coaxial nozzle is conducted. The parameters of powder jet such as velocity of the particles, trajectories, temperature, and shape of powder stream and its focal position essentially depends on the geometrical configuration of outlet nozzle's channels and also the flow rate of powder and its size distribution function. The distribution of the 3D mass-flow and the count density of particles are calculated and the positions of the local powder focus area in the space between the nozzle and the substrate are determined.
The results of experimental investigation of powder jet profiles and three-dimensional (3D) analysis of the powder flow are presented. A dedicated device has been designed and implemented in order to measure the 3D powder jet profiles of existing nozzles. A laser plane from a diode laser He-NE source is placed perpendicularly to the powder jet and creates a 2D slice of the powder flow by lighting it at a given height. A CMOS camera is placed in the main direction of the powder flow. A dedicated image processing algorithm is used to reconstruct a 3D profile of the powder jet from a set of 2D slices and for computing the main powder flow characteristics (position of the powder spot, powder spot diameter,…).
Comparisons of numerical simulation results with experimental data are presented. It gives more complete understanding of the physical mechanisms of the processes.

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